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Cancer Research Frontiers. 2015 Feb; 1(1): 25-36. doi: 10.17980/2015.25

The Evolution of Sentinel Node Biopsy in Urological Malignancy

Tharani Mahesan, Alberto Coscione, Ben Ayres, Nick Watkin1[*].

1Department of Urology, St George’s Hospital, Tooting, London, UK.

 

*Corresponding author: Mr Nick Watkin. Department of Urology, St George’s Hospital, Tooting, London, UK. Nick.watkin@stgeorges.nhs.uk

Citation: Mahesan T, et al. The Evolution of Sentinel Node Biopsy in Urological Malignancy. Cancer Research Frontiers. 2015 Feb; 1(1): 25-36. doi: 10.17980/2015.25

Copyright: @ 2015 Mahesan T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

The abbreviations used: LN, lymph nodes; LNDs, lymph node dissections; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NIRF, near infra-red fluorescence optical imaging agents; SLNB, sentinel lymph node biopsy; SN, sentinel nodes; SPECT-CT, single photon emission computed tomography combined with CT; US, ultrasound.

Received November 14, 2014; Revised January 15, 2015; Accepted January 19, 2015; Published February 16, 2015.

 

 

Abstract

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) provides an accurate staging tool for a variety of malignancies including urological cancers. Initially introduced as a single procedure technique, SLNB has evolved into a dynamic multi-stage procedure that has an invaluable impact on the management of cancer patients. After a thorough literature search, this article summarises the advancement of the SLNB procedure since its conception. The introduction of radioactive tracers and blue dye has resulted in a highly sensitive technique but one around which concerns persist. This paper updates existing material on the topic by examining the potential of near infra-red fluorescence optical imaging agents (NIRF) and anatomical fusion imaging as useful adjuncts to the currently practiced technique. SLNB has an established role in penile cancer with a well-documented improvement in morbidity and mortality rates. The presence of sentinel nodes in pelvic malignancy is controversial but papers have established that the technique is feasible for use in such cancers and that NIRF may have a role to play here in the future. SLNB currently has no place in the management of testicular or renal malignancy.

Keywords: Sentinel nodes; Lymph nodes; Penile cancer

 

 

 

 

 

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