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Review

Cancer Research Frontiers. 2015 Feb; 1(1): 11-24. doi: 10.17980/2015.11

Exosomes in Cancer Research

Sarah R. Vaiselbuh1[*]

1Children’s Cancer Center, Staten Island University Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

*Corresponding author: Sarah R. Vaiselbuh, M.D., Director Children’s Cancer Center, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York 10305, USA; The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA. Email: svaiselbuh@nshs.edu

Citation: Vaiselbuh SR. Exosomes in Cancer Research. Cancer Research Frontiers. 2015 Feb; 1(1): 11-24. doi: 10.17980/2015.11

Copyright: @ 2015 Vaiselbuh SR. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Received December 10, 2014; Revised January 21, 2015; Accepted January 29, 2015; Published February 13, 2015.

 

 

Abstract

Next generation sequencing has provided the ability to screen for novel microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers in biofluids of patients with cancer. Extravesicular vesicles in the peripheral blood, known as exosomes, provide a reliable source of miRNAs for disease biomarker detection. The molecular content of exosomes, readily available in body fluids such as blood, urine and saliva, is highly specific and a powerful biomedical tool. Exosomes generated during tumorigenesis and derived from cancer cells provide cancer fingerprints, detectable in peripheral blood. In addition, since cancer exosomes are messengers for signaling and alteration of the tumor microenvironment, it is no surprise that cancer features such as angiogenesis, chemoresistance and metastasis are associated with them, and their ability to facilitate the formation of a pre-metastatic niche as a primer for implantation of circulating tumor cells. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the state-of-the-art of exosomes in cancer research, their role in cancer niche development with clinical correlation as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, as well as their future use in exo-therapy in the era of precision oncology medicine.

Keywords: Exosomes, Extravesicular vesicles, Cancer, miRNA

 

 

 

 

 

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