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Review

Cancer Research Frontiers. 2018; 4(1): 101-130. doi: 10.17980/2018.101

Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Melanoma

Rosalin Mishra*, Hima Patel*, Long Yuan, Joan T. Garrett#

Address: James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0514.

*These authors contributed equally.

 

#Corresponding author: Joan T. Garrett, James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0514. Phone: 513-558-6662; Fax: 513-558-4372; Email: joan.garrett@uc.edu

Citation: Rosalin Mishra, et al. Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Melanoma. Cancer Research Frontiers. 2018; 4(1): 101-130. doi: 10.17980/2018.101

Copyright: @ 2018 Rosalin Mishra, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Competing Interests: The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Received June 29, 2018; Revised Sept 12, 2018; Accepted Sept 14, 2018. Published Oct 11, 2018.

 

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in various stages of melanoma development including melanocyte transformation, melanin production, melanoma cell metabolism, metastasis and immune response against melanoma progression. Several molecular and enzymatic signaling cascades control ROS levels and have differential regulation depending on the cell type. The equilibrium between ROS production and scavenging is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis and this balance is often altered in tumor cells. ROS is generated in cancer cells due to mitochondrial dysfunction, enhanced metabolic rates, increased cellular signaling, enhanced peroxisome activities and genetic alterations. In this review, we discuss the source and mechanisms of ROS generation. We also highlight the role of ROS in the process of melanomagenesis. This review provides an overview of ROS-dependent anticancer therapies including ROS scavenging antioxidants and ROS boosting therapies which have presented promising outcomes both in in vitro and in vivo melanoma models. We summarize how the understanding of ROS-targeted signaling plays a crucial role in melanoma prognosis and drug resistance. Hence, the knowledge of ROS in melanoma etiology and progression can be exploited in clinical practice for development of better therapies for melanoma treatment.

Keywords: Melanoma, ROS, BRAF, antioxidant, targeted therapy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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